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 Post subject: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Sun Mar 01, 2009 5:27 pm 
Mr. Invisible
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This timing belt/waterpump maintenance was performed on a 1999 Subaru Legacy GT with the DOHC. This is my first time attempting a timing belt and took me about 4 hours in a garage with a hoist.

Disclaimer: Blah blah.. your fault.. blah blah.. I'm not responsible for anything you do.. blah blah.. and blah!


• Part Numbers
• Part 1: Disassembly
• Part 2: Timing Belt
• Part 3: Cam-Shaft
• Part 4: Waterpump
• Part 5: Timing Belt Installation
• Part 6: Coolant


Part Numbers:
21200AA072 - Thermostat Assembly
21236AA010 - Gasket – Thermostat
21114AA051 - Gasket - Water Pump
21111AA110 – Water pump
13028AA072 – Timing Belt
13033AA042 – Timing Belt Tensioner

Part 1: Disassembly

Disconnect negative battery terminal

This is probably the easiest part. I will not go into much detail with disassembly because if you cannot remove these items without prior mechanical knowledge, you should NOT attempt a timing belt change.

A.) Remove your drive belts/v-belts. There's two, the alternator belt and A/C compressor belt.

B.) Remove radiator fans. There's one bolt on the bottom of both fans, two on the side of each fan and one on the top of each fan. Unclip the two connectors below and remove the fans from the top.

C.) Remove radiator reservoir. There's two screws holding it in place at the top.

D.) It's easier to remove the radiator but you don't have to. I did. To remove radiator, first drain the coolant from the engine and radiator. From below, you will see a thick hose on the driver side of the bottom part of the radiator going to the thermostat. Above that there is a small hose; remove the butterfly clip with needle nose pliers, and slide off. Be warned, there will be lots of coolant coming out of there so have a drain pan ready.

Image

On the passenger side of the bottom part of the radiator is a drain plug to drain the coolant from the radiator. Unscrew this and have a drain pan ready.

E.) Unscrew both radiator hoses. One is on the bottom that connects thermostat to the radiator. Remove it from the radiator. The second is on top, at the passenger side. Again remove from radiator side.

Image

F.) You can take the time to flush your engine if you'd like too. Take a hose, insert it into the passenger side hose of the radiator and turn it on. The water will drain out of the plastic tube from step D. You should also flush your radiator as well.

G.) Next is the drive main pulley. It's a size 22mm socket and you will need a special tool to get this off. There is 130ft-lbs of torque on this bolt and will require you to hold the pulley while you un-due the bolt. I don't have the tool but my friend had a welder so we decided to create our own. This is it in all it's glory!

Image

H.) With the main pulley out of the way, remove the three timing belt covers. There's three bolts holding the left and right covers on and eight bolts holding the centre cover on. Five on the top and three on the bottom. There's also gaskets on the centre cover so you might want to check into that if you want to replace them. I didn't.

Part 2: Timing Belt

A.) If you purchased an OEM timing belt, it will have markings on it and these markings are what you will use to align everything up. The first step is to insert the main pulley bolt into the crank sprocket and turn the engine clockwise until all the timing marks line up. There's a dot on the crank sprocket (some crank sprockets will not have a dot, so look for the grooved line on the rear teeth of the sprocket. DO NOT ALIGN THE ENGINE NOTCH WITH THE ARROW ON THE CRANK SPROCKET. The arrow represents TDC, you want to align everything so the pistons are recessed inside the cylinders, not TDC. (The engine notch is a little to the right as you can see in the picture so make sure you don't align it perfectly centred of the engine block mark.)

Some images to help illustrate the two markings.

If you align via grooved line, the pistons will look like they do in the following pictures.

Image

Image

Image

If you align via arrow/triangle, they will be at TDC as shown in following pictures.

Image

Image

Image

If you align the engine notch mark with the arrow on the crank sprocket, you will see all four arrows on the cam sprockets pointing up. You want to make sure all the SINGLE and DUAL marks are the ones that line up; I cannot stress this enough.

B.) Take your new timing belt and roughly check what markings will go where. The timing belt should have an arrow on it pointing in which direction it will turn. The arrow reference is usually the top of the belt. You want to establish which timing mark goes where so you won't be fumbling around during installation and risk moving cams. This step is very important for installation.

Image

Note: Two revolutions of the crank sprocket = one revolution of the cams. If nothing lines up, it's because you need to make one more revolution on the crank.

Image

C.) Remove the tensioner bolt and the tensioner. Nothing should happen. If something moved or jumped it's because all the timing marks were not lined up properly. Now is the time where you remove the timing belt, but if this is your first time reading, it is very very very important that you read Part 3 BEFORE you remove the timing belt. DO NOT remove the timing belt until you have read at least Part 3. Once you have read and understood Part 3, then go ahead and remove the belt. I started at the crank and worked my way clockwise.

Part 3: Cam-Shaft

This is the most difficult part for most. It was scary as shit for me but after reading the Haynes manual, OnDemand5 and the Factory Service Manual, this is what I understand. When the crank shaft sprocket is aligned via the grooved line on the rear of the crank sprocket, not the arrow/triangle which is TDC (top dead centre), the pistons inside the cylinders are recessed in the middle of the engine so there is no interference with the valves. If the timing belt is OFF and you rotate that crank sprocket; you're in big trouble because you can possibly connect piston heads with valves.

The passenger side cams are under no load or pressure so those don't need any special attention. The driver side intake/exhaust cams are where things get tricky, especially if you don't have a cam locking tool like I didn't. When cam #2 (intake cam on driver side, the top one) and #4 (exhaust cam on driver side, the bottom one) are aligned, meaning the double notch marks are aligned, the valves are in no danger to each other. At this alignment, the cams can be moved INDEPENDENTLY meaning if you decide to rotate the top one, do not touch the bottom one until the top one is rotated so it's notch markings are at their designated alignment spot with the cam below.

Image

The cams also have a distinct way to be rotated, why? I'm not sure. I couldn't find a reason but maybe someone can answer that question and this is from the Factory Service Manual.

Image

The cams can be rotated full circle in their proper direction. Top one rotates clockwise, bottom one rotates counter-clock wise. If you need to rotate the cams, do so very carefully because they are under a slight load and if you rotate them to far, the lobe on the valve creates a lot of pressure and sends the cam flying in a full revolution. This happened to me and scared the shit out of me but thankfully the exhaust cam (below) was in it's proper alignment position so no interference!

Part 4: Waterpump

A.) Waterpump removal and installation is very simple. Remove idler pulley that is on the waterpump.

B.) Remove the six bolts holding the water pump in place. It would also be a good idea to remove the bottom rad house from the waterpump housing. Two bolts, 10mm in size. You may also want to replace the thermostat.

C.) Make sure you remove the little rubber gasket on the side from the old waterpump and transfer it onto the new one.

D.) The trickiest part is probably getting the gasket to align with the bolts. There's actually a procedure on how you install the bolts. Start from the right side bolt (looks sort of hidden inside that small metal crevice) and tighten to hand tight and work in a clockwise fasion all the way around. Once they are tightened by hand, then repeat starting from same bolt and torque down to 7.2ft-lbs of force. Very small amount of force, I just snugged them in by hand.

E.) Install idler pulley.

Part 5: Timing Belt Installation

A.) Install your new tensioner but DO NOT pull the pin. Torque down to 30ft-lbs.

B.) Timing belt installation is fairly simple. Using the OEM markings on the belt and since you already know which marking will be the crank shaft sprocket marking (you established this in Part 2, Section B), place that marking on the crank sprocket making sure it aligns with the sprocket AND the marking on the engine block. Going clock wise, feed the belt underneath the tensioner and repeat for cam #2. Align the belt so the marking on the cam aligns with the marking on the rear cover and the belt. All three markings must be aligned. Repeat for the Cam #4 (exhaust cam), but this marking is a little bit trickier because it's on the side. Use a mirror, and a flashlight, to double check and triple check.

Keep going around, over the waterpump, under the idler pulley, IGNORE the last idler pulley. Leave the belt below it hanging. Align marks on Cam #3 and Cam #1. Now go around and make sure all three markings (on the belt, on the cams/sprockets and the covers) line up perfectly. In my case, the double markings on the driver side cams were not aligned 100%, they were a little off but all the other markings were perfect so I wasn't worried. As stated before, the double markings are really only for reference.

Image

C.) Once you're confident that the marks are all perfect, move the timing belt over the last idler pulley and pull the tensioner's pin. Take your wrench and socket and rotate the crank sprocket two revolutions and double check your alignment marks. You will no longer have the timing belt marks to work with, only the cam/sprocket marks and the covers will be aligned.

Assembly is reverse of removal (duh)

Part 6: Coolant

Once everything is assembled, fill the rad with 50/50 water/coolant mix. Start the engine and keep filling until rad is full. Allow the car to warm up so the thermostat opens up and continues circulating coolant. The idea is to fill the rad up as much as possible and then close the cap. Then remove the bleeder valve on the passenger side of rad and that should eliminate any air inside the system.

Good luck!


Last edited by warrior on Tue Mar 16, 2010 7:01 am, edited 8 times in total.


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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Sun Mar 01, 2009 6:46 pm 
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this is awesome, i will be doing heads on ym car soon and this is just what i needed to make sure i dont screw anything up


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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Mon Mar 02, 2009 6:33 am 
Mr. Invisible
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It's pretty easy man! This is the second timing belt I've ever done in my life.. the first one was on my DSM and that took me 10 hours!

The hardest part for this was understanding how the driver side cams work and getting that crank pulley off. :smt023



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Mon Mar 02, 2009 1:58 pm 
SLi O.G.
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nice write up. ive always installed subaru belts counterclock-wise . basicly because of no marks on the belt. but if i ever do get one with marks. ill give it a try clock-wise



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Tue Mar 03, 2009 2:43 am 
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thanks for posting this!! another good write up to have in the forum. any of you mods wanna put this in threads of note?? i think it should be in there with all the other engine and drivetrain goodies.



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Mon Mar 09, 2009 1:40 am 
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Very helpful! I will be doing this for the first time maybe this weekend.



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Wed Mar 18, 2009 5:29 am 
Mr. Invisible
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Thanks, but with the timing belt off, the crank pulley should not be rotated at all. This is very dangerous to the novice mechanic. Only because the driver side intake and exhaust cams are under load and if they happen to spin and that crank shaft is rotated, you will cause damage.

Please edit your post and remove that advice as it will only confuse people.

Removing the fans from the radiator is the logical thing to do when removing the rad. Being a lazy mechanic doesn't make you a better one and with the fans attached, it will just make it that much harder for some people. This is why there are steps, they are baby steps but that is what is required for beginners to learn. If you are an experienced mechanic and can accomplish two steps in one; then all the power to you. These DIY are and should be written in a step-by-step manner; similar to the factory service manual. :smt023

Timing belt installation is written in Part 5, section B., with an image. Not sure how your tip is an additional tip?



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Wed Mar 18, 2009 12:16 pm 
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Jamal I deleted your post to avoid confusion. If you want to submit your tips to warrior he will add it into his write up and he will give credit where credit is due. thanks



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Wed Mar 18, 2009 10:44 pm 
"Proby"
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with the belt off the driver's side valves spring closed. I suppose it's irrelevant.


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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Thu Mar 19, 2009 7:54 am 
Mr. Invisible
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jamal wrote:
with the belt off the driver's side valves spring closed. I suppose it's irrelevant.


This isn't about irrelevance or not. There's a lot of procedures that are viable but they are not needed to avoid confusion. It's easier to simplify and the simplest solution is to not rotate the crank shaft even though the option is there. There's no relevance for the crank to be rotated anyway, why throw that in there, just to confuse others?

You may not be confused because you understand the mechanics of how the pistons are operating but others do not have that luxury; this is why simplification is needed. We're not trying to say your information is not valuable; it is, but not in this thread.

The driver side cams can be rotated while the grooved line on the rear teeth of the sprocket is aligned with the engine block mark, if the arrow is aligned, then the drive side and passenger side front pistons (I believe 1 and 2) are at TDC, but remember only rotate individually. If you rotate the intake cam, then rotate the exhaust cam without aligning the intake cam first, you can cause the two valves to interfere with each other and if it so happens to be when the cam is under load and sends the cam spinning, that force will cause valve damage.

This is why it's best to leave rotating parts stationary and to not rotate them at all.


Last edited by warrior on Fri Jun 19, 2009 7:05 am, edited 1 time in total.


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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Wed May 13, 2009 4:09 pm 

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Mr. Invisible,

This is outstanding! 50X better than Haynes. Too bad I didn't find this forum a few weeks ago--it would have saved me some serious hair-pulling! I'm especially glad for the warning that there'll be some action in the cam sprockets on the DS when I go to put them on their timing marks.

I had the timing belt on a '97 Legacy GT wagon 2.5L go out and had to have the heads re-built due to bent valves. When I was taking off the camshaft pulley, I used a nick in it to find what I thought was TDC before I removed the cam sprockets. Now that I'm about to put the new timing belt back on, I realize (looking at the crankshaft sprocket now instead of the pulley) that I still need to turn the crank 90 degrees in a clock-wise direction to put the crank sprocket on its timing mark (Apparently, I was wrong about the nick-mark on the pulley that I lined up with the zero on the outer timing belt cover).

Before I go moving the pistons, I wanted to get input on whether or not this will damage the valves. Currently, none of the cams are depressing any of the valve lifters: I installed them (per Haynes' instructions) with the bottoms (non-pointed ends) of the lobes over the lifters and was planning to put them into their timing positions as soon as I go to put the belt on.

What do you think? It seems like "jamal" might have been speaking to my issue, but it also seems as though his comments were mostly deleted so as not to confuse people. Do you know whether I risk banging the valves with the pistons? The two pistons that I take to be 1 & 3 are both fully extended out to their furthest position, almost up to the head gasket seam, and by turning it 90 degrees, I assume that these will retreat down the cylinder, but how far? half-way? I don't think that 90 degrees will bring the other two pistons (2 & 4) all the way up either.

If you can give me your thoughts, I'd be grateful.

Thanks
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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Fri Jun 19, 2009 7:09 am 
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sideshow wrote:
Mr. Invisible,

This is outstanding! 50X better than Haynes. Too bad I didn't find this forum a few weeks ago--it would have saved me some serious hair-pulling! I'm especially glad for the warning that there'll be some action in the cam sprockets on the DS when I go to put them on their timing marks.

I had the timing belt on a '97 Legacy GT wagon 2.5L go out and had to have the heads re-built due to bent valves. When I was taking off the camshaft pulley, I used a nick in it to find what I thought was TDC before I removed the cam sprockets. Now that I'm about to put the new timing belt back on, I realize (looking at the crankshaft sprocket now instead of the pulley) that I still need to turn the crank 90 degrees in a clock-wise direction to put the crank sprocket on its timing mark (Apparently, I was wrong about the nick-mark on the pulley that I lined up with the zero on the outer timing belt cover).

Before I go moving the pistons, I wanted to get input on whether or not this will damage the valves. Currently, none of the cams are depressing any of the valve lifters: I installed them (per Haynes' instructions) with the bottoms (non-pointed ends) of the lobes over the lifters and was planning to put them into their timing positions as soon as I go to put the belt on.

What do you think? It seems like "jamal" might have been speaking to my issue, but it also seems as though his comments were mostly deleted so as not to confuse people. Do you know whether I risk banging the valves with the pistons? The two pistons that I take to be 1 & 3 are both fully extended out to their furthest position, almost up to the head gasket seam, and by turning it 90 degrees, I assume that these will retreat down the cylinder, but how far? half-way? I don't think that 90 degrees will bring the other two pistons (2 & 4) all the way up either.

If you can give me your thoughts, I'd be grateful.

Thanks
--sideshow--


I'm sorry I didn't respond sooner.. to answer your question is simple.

There's two markings on the crank sprocket. One is on the front side, it's an arrow or triangle. The other is on the REAR teeth of the crank sprocket, it's a grooved line. If the arrow/triangle is pointing up towards the engine block timing mark, the two front pistons (1 and 2 I believe) are at TDC. Both of them are fully extended to the head gasket seam.

If you move the crank 90° to the right, the two pistons will recess in and you will see the grooved line on the rear teeth align to the engine mark. You are free from hitting the valves to the pistons as all pistons are recessed in. I will take pictures later today and post them.

The only concern is when you rotate the cams together.. if they are off load, and the valves are under no pressure then it's ok to rotate either one, but once one of the cams are under load then you have to be careful as the intake and exhaust cams can hit each other.



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Mon Jun 22, 2009 12:48 am 

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Thanks for the explanation. It turns out that I didn't look carefully at the Haynes manual, which does explain how to go from TDC to the timing "zero" mark like you described. As far as the valves go, I deduced the same thing you explained by looking at the cam lobes and figuring out when each would depress the valves.

The story had a happy ending and I'm now living happily ever after with the Subaru. Thanks again for your post.


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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Mon Jun 22, 2009 5:54 am 
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sideshow wrote:
Thanks for the explanation. It turns out that I didn't look carefully at the Haynes manual, which does explain how to go from TDC to the timing "zero" mark like you described. As far as the valves go, I deduced the same thing you explained by looking at the cam lobes and figuring out when each would depress the valves.

The story had a happy ending and I'm now living happily ever after with the Subaru. Thanks again for your post.


No problem, glad you got it working! I added pictures to help illustrate :smt023



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Sun Jan 10, 2010 12:27 pm 
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good work! Congrats!


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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Sun Feb 21, 2010 8:04 pm 
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I made a friggin mistake for sure. The haynes manual has shit worth of information! I wish I took a look at this. Anyways I put the white markings at the top of the aligment mark, but found out that the white mark was the double mark not the single and removed the belt! What can I do? I kinda put myself at a stop because of this. I need to get the single mark on the cam pulley to line up with the single notch on the engine and the double marks to ine up with each other. I am screwed huh?



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Tue Feb 23, 2010 12:48 am 
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httrdd wrote:
I made a friggin mistake for sure. The haynes manual has shit worth of information! I wish I took a look at this. Anyways I put the white markings at the top of the aligment mark, but found out that the white mark was the double mark not the single and removed the belt! What can I do? I kinda put myself at a stop because of this. I need to get the single mark on the cam pulley to line up with the single notch on the engine and the double marks to ine up with each other. I am screwed huh?

you can move the cams around just don't use a wrench. the spings on the vaulves will keep you from hurting anything. unless you crank on it with a wrench.


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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Tue Feb 23, 2010 8:36 am 
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Well the heads are coming off since I am doing a head gasket so I cam reposition them no problem.



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Fri Mar 05, 2010 4:39 am 
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THanks for the write up im going to study it a few more times before i step to it and get it done.

it doesn't seem that hard its pretty much just be precise and PAY ATTENTION to whats going on.
from what it seems from reading this i should be able to do this in a good long day or maybe a weekend

what would you say would be easier pulling the engine and getting it done or just doing it with the engine in the car
?



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Sat Mar 06, 2010 1:53 am 
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Sambo wrote:
what would you say would be easier pulling the engine and getting it done or just doing it with the engine in the car
?


It's harder to see the marks with the engine installed, but with a flashlight and a friend - doing it in the car will save you a couple of hours.



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Sat Mar 06, 2010 2:51 am 
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Thanks ! i would defiantly have a buddy helping! how hard is the engine to pull ?



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Sat Mar 06, 2010 4:20 am 
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I've pulled several subaru engines before, so with a friend it takes about 1.5 hours or so - with an engine hoist. The first time took us 3 hours , that's with labeling everything. Unless you really need to pull the engine (to replace leaking seals for instance), I don't see the point for "just" changing the timing belt. Broken bolts, ripped wires, torn hoses, etc - lots of bad things could happen. But that's just me.



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Sat Mar 06, 2010 2:46 pm 
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i was going to do the clutch and depending on how ambitious im feeling trying to get some new rings put in get it to stop burning so much oil hopefully give my engine more life



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Wed Apr 21, 2010 6:34 pm 
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Mr. Invisible,

You wouldn't happen to have done a write up on said DSM timing belt you replaced did you? And if you did, was it by chance on a 4B20A non turbo Second gen Eclipse? :) gotta buddy needs one done.


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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Thu Apr 22, 2010 5:55 am 
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Benders wrote:
Mr. Invisible,

You wouldn't happen to have done a write up on said DSM timing belt you replaced did you? And if you did, was it by chance on a 4B20A non turbo Second gen Eclipse? :) gotta buddy needs one done.


Sorry man, that was years ago! I never even owned a camera then :(

It wasn't the 4B20A motor either.. it was the older one.. I forget the name.. but 4G comes to mind.



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Tue May 11, 2010 12:34 pm 
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how about for SOHC timing belt is the procedure the sam as in DOHC?


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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Tue May 11, 2010 12:50 pm 
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lowprofile69 wrote:
how about for SOHC timing belt is the procedure the sam as in DOHC?


The SOHC should be a lot easier as it's not an interference engine. You don't have any fear of valves colliding when the cams are spun. I've never done a timing belt on a SOHC but it shouldn't be any different, you only have two cams rather than four.

A lot of procedure should be the same but don't quote me on it.



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Wed May 12, 2010 12:17 am 
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warrior wrote:
lowprofile69 wrote:
how about for SOHC timing belt is the procedure the sam as in DOHC?


The SOHC should be a lot easier as it's not an interference engine. You don't have any fear of valves colliding when the cams are spun. I've never done a timing belt on a SOHC but it shouldn't be any different, you only have two cams rather than four.

A lot of procedure should be the same but don't quote me on it.





well thanks mate ill be doing it sooner together with my HG changing :wink:


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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Thu Aug 26, 2010 12:10 pm 
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I have read this over and over and still have one question:

At what point do I turn the crankshaft to TDC to put the belt on? After the cams are in position?

Thanks, I'm doing this and head gaskets this weekend.



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 Post subject: Re: Timing Belt and Waterpump (1999 BD - DOHC)
PostPosted: Thu Aug 26, 2010 12:26 pm 
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djmtsu wrote:
I have read this over and over and still have one question:

At what point do I turn the crankshaft to TDC to put the belt on? After the cams are in position?

Thanks, I'm doing this and head gaskets this weekend.


Technically you aren't putting the crank shaft to TDC because the pistons are all recessed inside their chamber. Use the LINE and not the ARROW!

You want to do this when the original timing belt is still on, if it's not on and your heads are off.. it doesn't matter as the valves aren't there to interfere with the piston.



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